Gynecology, that literally means “science of women” and that, in medicine, refers to the medical and surgical specialty that treats diseases of the female reproductive system (uterus, vagina and ovaries).
It is also responsible of helping in other processes such as family planning and menopause, and as the gynecologist is the doctor that is more in contact with women, he also takes care of breast control.
One of the great medical advances in terms of prevention is to ensure women’s revisions periodically (on an annual basis). Thanks to these reviews, mortality and morbidity of diseases linked to the female genital tract and breasts have fallen drastically, with the consequent improvement in life quality and longevity of women.
The main objective of the annual gynecological examination is to diagnose at an early stage the possible diseases that can be cured, such as vaginal and/or uterine infections, benign pathology of the vagina, uterus, ovaries and breast, hormonal dysfunctions, as well as cervical or breast cancer, which could be cured at an early stage with non-aggressive treatments. Otherwise it could have an uncertain prognosis and need a much more aggressive treatment.
In an annual gynecological examination, we perform in a systematic way.:
1- Triple sample citology and colposcopy: allows the diagnosis of precancerous lesions of the cervix before they evolve, allowing their solution with non-aggressive interventions that will preserve the uterus and its reproductive capacity.
In addition we can check for vaginal infections with this test, allowing the appropriate treatment.
2- Bimanual vaginal tactus: it allows to appreciate the characteristics of the uterus and ovaries, both in shape and consistency and mobility, being able to come out with painful, irregular zones, etc.
3- Breast palpation: checking for any breast abnormalities.
4-Transvaginal ultrasound; complementing the bimanual exam, giving us a complete vision of the uterus and the ovaries.
5- In addition, complementary tests such as mammography (recommended over 40 years of age), breast ultrasound, general and/or hormonal tests, bone densitometry, and any other tests deemed necessary to arrive at the correct diagnosis of the process being studied.
If a surgical intervention is needed, it will be performed at Clínica Corachán, in Barcelona, which has the human and infrastructure resources suitable for all types of gynecological interventions, such as vaginal, abdominal, laparoscopic or hysteroscopic procedures.
In case of being necessary, the Clinic has an ICU and Coronary service, as well as a gynecologist on call 24/7.
For those women who do not want to become pregnant, after the examination and according to their willingness, we will give advice on which is the most suitable contraceptive system for them, being the most common:
1- Barrier methods: Condoms are the most common method used nowadays, adding the advantage of preventing sexually transmitted diseases.
2- Hormonal contraception: daily pills, vaginal ring (hormonal absorption done through vaginal mucosa), or patches (transdermal absorption).
3- Copper IUD: Existing several models depending on the size of the uterus and whether the woman has had children or not, and if the delivery has been vaginal or cesarean. Its placement is done in the consultation and has a very acceptable rate of effectiveness, having the advantage that it can not be forgotten.
4- Hormonal IUD: Positioning like a conventional IUD, it has the advantage of having a higher effectiveness, and it can even suppresses menstruation, an effect that is also used in women that wish to regulate abundant menstruations.
5- Tubal Ligation and Vasectomy: These are surgical methods, with the advantage of being permanent and the safest among all the methods.
In case of either genital or breast cancer, we will require all the necessary test for a correct diagnosis and staging. Afterwards, the oncology service (IDoc) and other professionals will be consulted, if necessary, and the most appropriate therapeutic decision will be taken, informing and advising the patient. If needed, surgery will be done at Clínica Corachán, which is equipped with the human resources, equipment and materials needed for this type of interventions such as an ICU, sentinel node detection, intraoperative pathological anatomy, clinic of pain service, blood bank, etc.